# MATLAB

MATLAB is a popular programming language used in scientific and engineering research and calculations on a large amount of data. MATLAB is an acronym for matrix laboratory. MATLAB provides a numerical computing environment for matrix manipulations, algorithm implementations, data and function plotting, creating a user interface, and for various other such functionalities. There are more than 3 million users of MATLAB across the world. MATLAB is developed by MathWorks, an organization specialized in developing mathematical computing software. There are various topics in MATLAB for thesis, research, and project. Before going into them, you should be aware of the basics of MATLAB and its various programming features.

MATLAB mainly find its use in the educational sector for teaching linear algebra, numerical analysis, and image processing. A scripting language is used for MATLAB application. MATLAB supports the concept of object-oriented programming language. The syntax used in MATLAB programming includes the following components:

**Variables**– An assignment operator ‘=’ is used to define variables.

>> x = 24

x = 24

**Vectors and Matrices –**A colon syntax is used to define the array.

**Structures –**Structure data type is used in MATLAB programming**Functions –**A function name should be a valid name containing letters, numbers, or underscores.

### MATLAB Environment

A typical MATLAB environment consists of menus, buttons, and a working area known as the command window. Commands to MATLAB are given here. There are a number of functions to use in MATLAB. A prompt is used in MATLAB after which the commands are written. The prompt looks like this >>. To execute the command press <enter>. Remember, MATLAB is a **case-sensitive language**. The four main parts of MATLAB user interface are:

**Command Window –**A working area where commands are typed.**Workspace Window –**To list newly defined variables.**Command History Window –**Area where previously typed commands are listed.**Current Directory Window –**Files in the current directory are shown here.

### Features of MATLAB

Following are the main features of MATLAB:

- Used for integration, differentiation, transformation.
- Used to plot analytical functions in 2D and 3D environment.
- Used for simplification and manipulation of symbolic expressions.
- MATLAB functions can be used to solve linear equations.
- Unit and dimensional analysis can be performed using MATLAB.

### Basic Operations in MATLAB

**Arithmetic Operations**

The basic arithmetic operations in MATLAB are:

- Addition +
- Subtraction –
- Multiplication *
- Division /
- Exponentiation ^

**Example:**

5+4

ans =

9

**Trigonometric and exponential functions**

- sin(x)
- cos(x)
- exp(x)
- log(x)

Along with these, there are various built-in functions in MATLAB.

**Variables in MATLAB**

Variables are the basic components of any programming language like MATLAB. As said above, variables are assigned using an assignment operator ‘=’.

a = 5

For carrying out the mathematical calculation:

a = 5

b = 7

a+b

ans =

12

**Arrays**

Arrays or matrices are an important part of programming. An array is represented as:

A = [2, 5, 7]

The position of the elements of the array is identified as:

A(1) = 2

A(2) = 5

A(3) = 7

**Concatenation**

The process of joining two arrays together is referred to as concatenation. The process of concatenation is represented using square brackets[].

**Example:**

A = [a1, a2]

where A is the larger matrix and a1 and a2 are the smaller matrices.

### Simulink

Simulink is a simulation environment developed by MathWorks used in integration with MATLAB. It is a data flow graphical programming language tool used for simulation, modeling, and multi-domain analyzing. Using this, virtual prototypes can be constructed to analyze the design concepts. Simulink provides a customizable set of block libraries which can be used to construct graphical models. Simulink finds its application in automatic control and digital signal processing. The basic elements in Simulink are:

- Blocks
- Lines

**Blocks – **Used to generate, modify, output, and display signals. There are different classes of blocks which are:

- Sources
- Sinks
- Discrete
- Continuous
- Signal Routing
- Math Operations

**Lines – **Used to transfer signals from one block to another and are indicated by an arrow.

Simulink can be started from the MATLAB command prompt entering the following command:

simulink

### Why Use MATLAB?

MATLAB language is an easy to use language as programs can be easily written in it. It is an interpreted language with a built-in integrated development environment and debugging. The syntax is also simple.

MATLAB is a platform-independent language supported by Windows, Linux, Unix, Mac.

MATLAB can be used to visualize data using its integral plotting and imaging commands.

MATLAB has outstanding graphical functions which can be used to visualize the data.

Algorithms can be tested in it without any need of recompilation.

### Image Processing Using MATLAB

Digital Image Processing is the process in which algorithms are used to perform operations on digital images. The image processing algorithms can be used to:

- Improve the clarity and quality of the digital images.
- Compress images to transfer across the network.
- Extract useful information from the images.
- Alter the features of the images and making it ready for display.

For the process of image processing, MATLAB provides a comprehensive environment for analysis and visualization of the data.

### Thesis and Research Using MATLAB

There are various application areas where MATLAB is used. It is used for the practical implementation of the thesis and the research associated with it. Following are the major areas where MATLAB is used:

**Embedded Systems –**It is a type of computer system in which software is embedded into the hardware. These systems can perform certain tasks like processing, storing, and controlling the data in the electronic systems. An embedded system generally has the following main components:- Power Supply
- Memory
- Processor
- Input/Output circuits
- Timers

**Wireless Communication –**Wireless Communication is a process in which information is transferred between two devices through wireless signals. In the communication network, there is a sender and a receiver. The information is sent through signals between the devices. Unlike wired communication, wireless communication does not require any physical medium. Electrical signals in the form of Electromagnetic Waves are used for communication.**Digital Signal Processing –**MATLAB find its application in digital signal processing as it provides various tools and functions to analyze, process, and extract features from the signals. Various mathematical and computational algorithms are used to perform digital signal processing. Error and noise in the signal can also be detected through the process of digital signal processing.**Internet of Things(IoT) –**MATLAB and Simulink tools can be used to design and deploy IoT applications. We can design custom IoT analytics and specialized algorithms to be used for data cleaning, machine learning, computer vision, and optimization. Data-driven and physics-based models can be developed using MATLAB and Simulink tools and functions.

This was all about the basic introduction of MATLAB. Contact Writemythesis if you are looking for thesis and research help using MATLAB. Contact us at 91-7696666022 or email us at teamwritemythesis@gmail.com for any thesis and research help using MATLAB in topics like Internet of Things(IoT), Image Processing, Wireless Communication.