Internet of Things(IoT)
Internet of Things or IoT is an interconnected network of physical devices connected to each other through the internet. The ‘things’ here refer to the physical object in the network that has its own unique IP address and has the ability to send and receive data over the network. The concept of the internet of things will impact our life both in how we live and how we work. It is a growing topic of interest these and will deeply affect our daily life in the near future in a positive way. There are a number of topics in Internet of Things(IoT) for thesis and research. Before going into the topics, it is better to have a complete understanding of the basics of IoT.
As it is said earlier that IoT is a network of physical devices over the internet. The physical devices can be mobile phones, PCs, headphones, wearable devices, vehicles, or any other such devices. The idea of IoT dates back to early 1980s when the concept of sensors and intelligence was discussed. This idea gained momentum though slowly later on. The term ‘Internet of Things’ was coined by Kevin Ashton in the year 1999. This technology will have a number of applications in different fields. For example, doctors will be able to track the health of patients from a distant location. Another important application will be the concept of ‘Smart City’, ‘Smart Homes’.
How IoT works?
For working on IoT based thesis, you must know about the working of IoT. Internet of Things(IoT) consists of physical devices that can send and receive data. The data is collected from the surrounding environment through sensors. All this create a type of an embedded system. The data collected by the devices is analyzed locally or in the cloud. The devices are connected to an IoT gateway. Different communication protocols are used depending on the type of application deployed. The devices themselves do all the work without any type of human intervention.
Applications of the Internet of Things(IoT)
Following are the major applications of IoT:
- Smart Homes – It is one of the important applications of IoT. It is a part of home automation in which everything in the house lighting, cooling, heating, security will be controlled through this concept of Internet of Things.
- Environment Monitoring – For environment monitoring, sensors are used to monitor air/water quality, moisture content in soil, etc. It will also keep a track of wildlife and their habitat.
- Healthcare – IoT devices are used for remote health monitoring as well as for emergency notifications. The IoT devices can be used to keep a track of patient’s health including body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure.
- Industrial Applications – IoT can greatly help in manufacturing industry in cost-saving, time-saving and providing better quality work.
- Smart Cars – The concept of smart cars or we can say self-driven cars have been successfully tested. This idea of self-driven cars will soon reach the common people in the coming years. Machine Learning forms the base of self-driven cars.
- Wearable Gadgets – A lot of wearable devices have already been launched in the market all over the world. These devices have sensors to collect data and information about the user.
Latest Research and Thesis Topics in Internet of Things(IoT)
There are a number of hot topics in Internet of Things(IoT) for thesis and research. Following is the list of latest thesis and research topics in IoT for M.Tech and Ph.D.:
- IoT Security
- IoT Semantics
- IoT Protocols
- IoT Architecture
- Communication in IoT
- IoT Energy Management
- IoT and Machine Learning
- IoT Business Model
IoT Security is one of the trending thesis topics in Internet of Things. It is an area dedicated to the security of IoT devices and the network. IoT paves the way for new opportunities, especially in the business sector. With a growing number of IoT deployment and solutions, IoT security remains one of the major concerns. IoT devices remain under the threat of an outside attacker. The attacker can hack the:
- IoT Device
Just like every other technology, security is a must in the IoT network. This will protect the huge pile of data generated and will retain the customer interest. The other critical concerns in IoT security are:
- Addition of new devices
- New updates
- Data protection from the third-party
You can work on the IoT security thesis to devise solutions to all these IoT security issues.
It is another good area for research and thesis in IoT. In the IoT network, the data is collected through the sensors. Semantic technologies can be applied to the IoT for:
- Easy data access and integration
- Processing of data
- Extracting useful knowledge
- Resource discovery
IoT Semantic Web is a concept in which a well-defined meaning is given to the information. It will enable the objects, devices, and people to work in co-operation. It will also provide independent interaction between the devices and the objects. You can work on this for an IoT based thesis.
There are different IoT protocols used for communication between devices. Following are the important protocols defined by IEEE and ETSI:
- Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) – This protocol is for the devices on the same constrained network and is for the systems based on HTTP protocols.
- Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT) – It is a messaging protocol used for remote monitoring in IoT.
- Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) – This protocol is based on the XML language and is for message-oriented middleware.
- Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) – It is an application layer protocol that supports reliable communication through message delivery.
- Data Distribution Protocol (DDS) – It is a real-time communication protocol that enables real-time and scalable data exchange.
- Simple Text Oriented Messaging Protocol (STOMP) – It is a simple and lightweight protocol for easy messaging interoperability.
These were the different IoT protocols on which you can work for your master’s thesis and go for research.
The exchange of information over the IoT network takes place over the layered architecture. Following are the building blocks of the IoT system:
- Sensors – Sensors are used to collect and share data on the internet.
- IoT Gateway – It acts as the interconnection between the sensor nodes and the internet.
- Objects – The physical devices in the network are referred to as the objects.
- Cloud Server – The transmitted data is processed and stored on the cloud server.
It is a layered architecture comprising of the following layers:
- Objects layer
- Object Abstraction layer
- Service Management layer
- Application layer
- Business layer
Communication in IoT
The communication in IoT takes place through protocols which have already been discussed above. The communication occurs between the devices more generally referred to as smart devices. It is through this communication they exchange data with each other. Along with protocols, wireless technologies like Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN), ZigBee, Bluetooth Low Energy(BLE) are used for communication. The communication protocols are chosen based on the goals that you want to achieve. The main mode of communication is wireless. Following are good thesis topics in internet of things related to communication:
- The clock synchronization of IoT devices of energy efficient data communication in IOT
- The secure and efficient data routing technique for the internet of things
IoT Energy Management
IoT plays an important role in energy management. Smart devices and systems offer businesses the advantage to cut down their energy usage and cost in real-time. They can study their different energy requirements make decisions according to that. IoT creates awareness of energy consumption using smart sensors and smart meters. The energy consumption data from the manufacturing process can be collected using these sensors. Following be a good thesis topic under IoT energy management:
- The secure and energy efficient data routing in the IOT based networks
IoT and Machine Learning
The concept of Machine Learning can be used in IoT technology. Supervised Machine Learning techniques are used to make important decisions. Combination of IoT and machine learning is a hot topic for the thesis. Machine learning is useful in IoT in the following scenarios:
- Machine Learning techniques can be used to find out anomalies in the data in the form of spikes, positive and negative trends.
- Machine Learning algorithms can be used in predictive maintenance to optimize operational cost.
- Machine Learning can be used in vehicle telemetry to improve their safety.
The first IoT and Machine Learning solution was launched by Microsoft. After Microsoft, other tech giants like Amazon and Google offered this technology.
IoT Business Model
With IoT, new business models can be developed using the existing framework. Following are the main business models to focus on:
- Subscription Model
- Outcome-based Model
- Asset Sharing Model
These business models can be used to monetize the IoT devices. You can work on the business models for the IoT based thesis for M.Tech and Ph.D.
These were the latest topics in internet of things for thesis and research. Masters and Ph.D. students can work on these topics for IoT thesis.
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