Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)
A wireless sensor network or WSN is a wireless network of devices that communicate with each other through wireless links such that each device has a sensor to monitor its surrounding environment. The wireless connectivity between the nodes is provided through a gateway to ensure data transfer between the nodes. A typical network has a base station along with the sensory nodes. This network can be used to measure the environmental conditions like temperature, pressure, air quality, sound, etc. Before writing an M.Tech thesis on wireless sensor network, should have a basic understanding of this wireless network, it’s working, it’s applications and it’s research areas.
Characteristics of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)
Following are the major characteristics of WSN:
- Power Efficiency – Wireless Sensor Network has the ability to save power and can be put to sleep when not in use.
- Responsiveness – The network is responsive such that it can adapt itself to any change in the topology of the network.
- Scalability – New nodes can be added in the network without any excessive overhead. However, it has a limitation such that the communication link can be broken with the increase in the network size.
- Mobility – Mobility is defined as the ability of the network to handle mobile nodes and change in data paths. To deal with mobile nodes, the network should be responsive.
- Reliability – The network is highly reliable. It can be used in tough environmental conditions and is easy to use.
Types of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)
Here are different types of wireless sensor networks on which you can work for WSN thesis:
- Terrestrial WSNs – Terrestrial WSNs can communicate with the base station directly. There are thousands of wireless sensor nodes in this network placed either in an unstructured or structured manner.
- Underground WSNs – These WSNs monitor underground physical conditions and are deployed in the ground. When compared with terrestrial WSNs, these are more expensive.
- Underwater WSNs – These WSNs are deployed under the water having a number of sensor nodes to collect underwater data.
- Multimedia WSNs – Multimedia WSNs are designed to track and monitor multimedia events like image, audio, and video.
- Mobile WSNs – Mobile WSNs have the ability to move on their own and provide better coverage, energy efficiency, and channel capacity.
Components of Wireless Sensor Network
A wireless sensor network is composed of different components. These components are:
- Sensory Nodes
- A base station (Gateway)
- Power source
- External Memory
Applications of Wireless Sensor Network
WSN offers a wide range of applications in different areas which are as follows:
- WSN is used in the military for battlefield surveillance, nuclear attack detection, damage assessment.
- WSN is used in environmental monitoring to detect forest fires, floods, agriculture monitoring, air pollution.
- WSN is used in healthcare for remote patient monitoring, medical diagnosis, elderly assistance.
- This network is used for data center monitoring, data logging, industrial monitoring.
- Other main applications include vehicle tracking, home automation, traffic surveillance.
Limitations of Wireless Sensor Network
Although WSNs have certain applications, there are certain limitations to this network:
- Less security when compared to the wired networks. This network can be easily attacked by an outsider.
- The nodes in the network have a low battery life and these need to be charged at regular intervals.
- The speed of communication is also slower than the wired network.
- Addition of new nodes can break the communication links and lowers the bandwidth.
Thesis and Research Areas in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)
There are various topics in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for thesis and research. Following is the list of major areas for the Ph.D. thesis on wireless sensor network:
- Data Aggregation
- WSN Security
- Routing in WSN
- Load Balancing
- Black hole attack
- Sinkhole attack
- WSN protocols
Clustering in WSN can be defined as the mechanism by which different nodes are divided into different groups on the basis of individual characteristics. The importance of clustering lies in the fact that it can improve the lifetime of a network. It is a good area for thesis report on the wireless sensor network. With clustering, energy efficiency and scalability of the network can be achieved. A cluster includes a Cluster Head and the member nodes. In WSN, there are different parameters for clustering which are:
- Cluster count
- Cluster size
- Inter-clustering routing
- Intra-clustering routing
It is another good area for the thesis on wireless sensor network. Data aggregation is required to process the raw data. There are different data aggregation techniques according to the requirements. Different algorithms employed for data aggregation include LEACH, TAG, Directed diffusion. The main aim of data aggregation in WSN is to cut down the power consumption. Not only this, it also improves the energy utilization and bandwidth in WSN. The different techniques for data aggregation include:
- Centralized Approach
- In-network Aggregation
- Tree-based Approach
- Cluster-based Approach
Data aggregation is an important concept in WSN as it not only improve energy efficiency but also reduce redundancy of data.
Security is a major issue in wireless sensor network as it is prone to outside attacks. WSN find its application in military, healthcare and hence security is a must. There is a threat of leakage of private information in the network. A malicious message can be injected into the network. An attacker can attack the physical layer of the network. Eavesdropping is another major issue in WSN. The main security requirements in the network termed as CIA are:
The different methods of security in WSN include Symmetric Encryption, Asymmetric Encryption, Hash Function, Digital Signature. It is also a good area for thesis and research on WSN security.
Routing in WSN
Routing is required for effective communication between the nodes. It is the process of finding a suitable path for data transmission from source to the destination. It is a very challenging process in wireless sensor network due to different design issues and characteristics. The route is selected on the basis of the type of network, channel characteristics, and performance metrics. Based on the underlying structure there are different routing techniques and protocols. You can work on a thesis on routing in wireless sensor networks. Routing protocols can be classified as follows:
- Proactive, reactive, and hybrid on the basis of functioning.
- Direct, flat, and clustering on the basis of node participation style.
- Hierarchical, data-centric, and location based on the basis of network structure.
LEACH(Low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy) is a popular energy-efficient hierarchical clustering algorithm. It reduces the power consumption of the nodes. The protocol divides the network into different clusters of sensors to reduce the amount of data. The main limitation of this algorithm is the extra overhead at the member nodes.
Load Balancing in WSN
Energy consumption is high due to the number of nodes in the network. In order to balance the energy consumption of the nodes, load balancing strategies are used in the network. It will increase the network lifetime. It is also a good topic for the thesis on WSN. A number of experiments have been conducted to ensure energy consumption and predict the error rate in the network. You can work on the different load balancing strategies for your Ph.D. thesis work.
Black hole Attack in WSN
It is one of the major security threats in the wireless sensor network. In this type of attack, a wrong path is advertised by a malicious node during the route finding process. A black hole is a gateway to the large number of harmful attacks on the network. In a single black hole attack, an individual malicious behaves as the black hole node. In a cooperative black hole, a group of nodes acts as the black hole nodes. In a grey hole attack, one or two nodes in the network are affected. There is a black hole detecting algorithm to detect the presence of black hole attack in the wireless sensor network.
Sinkhole Attack in WSN
A sinkhole attack is a serious threat to the sensor networks. These types of attacks are often difficult to tackle with. In this type of attack, fake routing information is sent by a comprised node to the other nodes. The nodes close to the base station are mainly targeted. An intrusion detection system is required to detect a sinkhole attack in the network. Detecting sinkhole attack is challenging due to:
- Communication patterns
- Resource constraints
It is also a good thesis topic in the wireless sensor network.
Different protocols are used for communication in the wireless sensor network depending upon the requirements. The WSN protocols can be classified on the basis of functionality, network structure, and data. There is a family of adaptive protocols termed SPIN (Sensor Protocols for Information via Negotiation). ACQUIRE(Active Query Forwarding in Sensor Networks) is another protocol that takes the network as a distributed database. There are different geographical protocols for location-based information.
Latest Thesis Topics in Wireless Sensor Network(WSN)
Here is the list of latest thesis topics in wireless sensor network for M.Tech and Ph.D.:
- To increase the efficiency of underwater aquatic networks using the vector-based technique
- To enhance the efficiency of the wireless sensor network using adaptive modulation
- Enhancement in RFID protocol to reduce packet loss in Wireless sensor networks
- To ensure privacy in the opportunistic type of networks
- Enhancement in Divide and conquer rule to reduce battery consumption in WSN
- Heterogeneous enhanced energy efficient protocol with static clustering in WSN
- To reduce bitrate error in OFDM Kalman filters
- TO detect and isolate misdirectional attack in wireless sensor networks
- To detect and isolate the sinkhole attack in wireless sensor networks
- To detect and isolate black hole attack in wireless sensor networks
There were the latest topics in WSN for thesis and research. Writemythesis offers thesis help in WSN. You can contact us for the thesis on WSN. Call us at 91-7696666022 or email us at email@example.com for any help related to research or thesis in WSN. You can also find more thesis topics in networking.