Topics in Electronics and Communication for Project, Thesis, and Research
Electronics and communication is a field that deals with the study of electronic devices, microprocessors, communication systems, transmitters, analog/digital transmissions and their related concepts and theories. It is because of this field that we are able to enjoy the benefits of electronic devices like mobiles, computers, television which have made our life comfortable. This field has also played an important role in bringing technical revolution in the world. Electronics and Communication Engineers are working hard to develop smart and multi-functional products. Distance communication has become much better in the past decade. There are various topics in electronics and communication which have a huge scope for research and development.
In terms of career, electronics and communication have good job opportunities for skilled engineers. There are various areas to do research and write an M.Tech thesis. Here is the list of hot topics in electronics and communication for thesis, research, seminar, and project.
- Optical Fiber Communication
- Wireless Local Area Network(WLAN)
- Wireless Sensor Networks
- Mobile Ad-hoc Network(MANET)
- Vehicular Ad-hoc Network(VANET)
Optical Fiber Communication
Fibre Optics is a branch of electronics that deals with the transmission of light signals over long distances through optical fibers. Optical fibers are long and extremely thin strands like human hair made up of pure glass. A single optical fiber has the following main components:
- Core – The thin glass center through which the travels.
- Cladding – An optical material around the core for reflecting light back to the core.
- Buffer coating – An outer plastic coating that acts as a protective shield around the fiber.
Fibre Optics is a very good choice as a topic for the thesis and research in electronics and communication.
There are two types of optical fibers:
- Single-mode Fibers – Have small cores
- Multi-mode Fibers – Have larger cores
Fibre Optics is based on the concept of total internal reflection in which the ray of light is completely reflected from the surrounding surface in the given medium.
Advantages of Fibre Optics
Fibre Optics has several advantages when compared to traditional medium of transmission such as:
- Higher Bandwidth
- Less susceptible to interference
- Lighter weight
It stands for multiple-input, multiple-output orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing and is the wireless communication technology used in 4G and 5G cellular standards. It combines the MIMO technology with OFDM for better communications at high speed. It is an advanced technology that can handle data rate of 1 Gbps and above and is the base for advanced wireless local area network(WLAN) and other mobile broadband networks. It is a hot topic for the thesis in electronics, particularly in wireless communication.
In MIMO technology, multiple antennas are used at both ends of the wireless links to improve the spectral efficiency and link reliability in the communication systems. OFDM combines modulation and multiplexing techniques and is a multicarrier block transmission system in which block symbols are grouped together and sent parallelly.
Advantages of MIMO-OFDM
- Better quality of service
- Spectral efficiency
- High data rates
- Reduction in interference
- Spectrum utilized to maximum
- Number of carriers are more
- Reliability of the link
- More flexible network
The implementation of MIMO-OFDM is based on the Fast Fourier Transform(FFT) algorithm as well as MIMO encoding.
Wireless Local Area Network(WLAN)
Wireless Local Area Network or WLAN is a wireless network in which users are connected to the local area network through a wireless connection. Wireless LAN technologies have been specified under the IEEE 802.11 group of standards. These standards use the Ethernet protocol and CSMA/CA protocol for communication and path sharing. In WLAN, a wireless router acts as a base station that provides connections to Wi-Fi-enabled devices.
There are various protocols used for building WLAN such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. The number of devices in the network can range from two to more than hundred as per the requirement. The devices can be mobile phones, laptop computers, or any internet-enabled device.
Advantages of WLAN
- Easy setup when compared to the wired network
- It can support a large number of devices
- Configuration is easy
- Installation of the network is cost-effective
Disadvantages of WLAN
- The network can be easily hacked
- Any form of interference affect the stability of the network
- In order to expand the network, there is a need for devices like repeaters
- Power consumption is high
Security standards in WLAN
There are some WLAN security standards which are given as follows:
- WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) – For data encryption
- WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) – For higher security
- 802.1x – To authenticate the wireless systems
- WPA2/802.11i – To address different aspects of security
Wireless Sensor Networks(WSN)
Wireless Sensor Networks is one of the leading areas of research and thesis. It is a network of devices in which devices known as nodes have sensors to monitor their surrounding environmental conditions like temperature, sound, pollution, humidity, etc. The nodes communicate with each other through wireless links. The data is transferred to other networks via wireless Ethernet. The network consists of a base station and the sensor nodes.
Types of WSNs
WSNs are divided into different types based on the environment in which they are deployed. These types are:
- Terrestrial WSNs
- Underground WSNs
- Underwater WSNs
- Multimedia WSNs
- Mobile WSNs
WSN Network Topologies
The sensor nodes in the network are organized in any one of the following three types of network topologies:
- Star Topology – A node connected directly to a gateway
- Tree Topology – A node connected to a higher node and then to the gateway
- Mesh Topology – A node connected to the multiple nodes
Components of a WSN Node
A WSN node consists of the following technical components:
- Analog Circuit
- Sensor Interface
Applications of WSN
The main applications of WSN are:
- Environmental Monitoring
- Asset Tracking
- Structural Monitoring
- Health Monitoring
- Traffic Monitoring
Limitations of Wireless Sensor Networks
- Less storage capacity
- Communication range is short
- High power consumption
- Low processing power
Mobile Ad-hoc Network(MANET)
Mobile Ad-hoc Network or MANET is a wireless network comprising of mobile nodes such that the mobile nodes are connected to each other through wireless links. It is an infrastructure-less network with continuous self-configuring mobile nodes.The term mobile is used here because the nodes can arrange themselves in various ways and can operate without the need of a network administrator. It is also a good topic in electronics and communication for thesis and research. Following are the types of mobile ad-hoc networks:
- Vehicular ad-hoc Networks(VANETs) – Concept of mobile ad hoc Network applied on vehicles for communication between the vehicles.
- Smartphone ad-hoc Networks(SPAN) – Network of smartphones built by leveraging the existing hardware.
- Internet-based mobile ad-hoc Network(iMANET) – A wireless ad hoc Network that uses routing protocols such as TCP/UDP and IP.
- Hub-Spoke MANET – Geographically distributed MANET.
- Flying ad-hoc Networks(FANETs) – A subclass of MANET made up of small flying vehicles offering greater mobility and connectivity.
Characteristics of Mobile ad-hoc Networks
The main characteristics of this network are:
- Dynamic Topology
- Limited Bandwidth
- Mobile nodes in the network
- The physical security is limited
- Multi-hop routing used in the network
- Decentralized and self-organizing network
Applications of Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
- Tactical Networks
- Sensor Networks
- Personal Area Networks
- Community Mesh Networks
- Army tactical MANETs
Vehicular Ad-hoc Network(VANET)
Vehicular Ad-hoc Network or VANET is a type of mobile ad-hoc network in which vehicles act as the mobile nodes that communicate with each other. The main purpose of this network is to improve the road security. The vehicles in the network are embedded with sensors which provide connection to the nearby cars within the network. This network uses short-range wireless technology such as WLAN, VLC(visible light communication).
Applications of Vehicular Ad-hoc Network
There is a wide range of applications of VANETs from single-hop communication to multi-hop communication. Following are the main applications of this network:
- Traffic information systems
- Emergency electronic brake lights
- Real-Time Video Relay(RTVR)
- Road Transportation Emergency Services
- Stop Vehicle Adviser
Following are the main protocols used in the Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks:
- OLSR(Optimized Link State Routing Protocols)
- DYMO(Dynamic MANET ON-Demand)
- DSRC(Dedicated Short Range Communication)
- AODV(Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector)
- CALM(Cont Air interface for Long and Medium Distance)
- CVIS(Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure System)
These were some of the latest topics in electronics and communication for thesis, research, project, and seminar. You can find M.Tech thesis help on these topics at Writemythesis. Contact us for any kind of help related to thesis and research in electronics and communication.